Families in Canada Interactive Timeline – Sources2018-08-29T07:44:59+00:00

Families in Canada Interactive Timeline – Sources

Below you can find a complete list of sources used in the Families in Canada Interactive Timeline. Statistics and sources are grouped by topic/subtopic (parallel structure with the timeline), listed chronologically with trends grouped together.

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MOTHERHOOD

Maternal age

  • 1970 – Average age of first-time mothers is 23.7 years.
  • 1980 – Average age of first-time mothers is 24.9 years.
  • 1990 – Average age of first-time mothers is 25.9 years.
  • 2000 – Average age of first-time mothers is 27.1 years.
  • 2011 – Average age of first-time mothers is 28.5 years.

Statistics Canada, “Fertility: Fewer Children, Older Moms,” Canadian Megatrends, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-630-X (November 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/1xw6syQ.

 

  • 1976 – Average age of all mothers giving birth is 26.7 years, which steadily increases to 30.2 years by 2011.

Statistics Canada, “Fertility: Fewer Children, Older Moms,” Canadian Megatrends, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-630-X (November 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/1xw6syQ.

 

  • 1981 – Women aged 30 and older accounted for 24% of all births in Canada, a rate that more than doubles to 55% by 2014.

Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, Age and Fertility (n.d.). Link: http://bit.ly/2mdWBih.

Statistics Canada, Live Births, by Age and Parity of Mother, Canada (CANSIM Table 102-4508) (page last updated April 26, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2o4EP4D.

 

  • 1994 – Women aged 30 and older account for 28% of all first-time mothers, a rate that increases to 44% by 2014.

Statistics Canada, Live Births, by Age and Parity of Mother, Canada (CANSIM Table 102-4508) (page last updated April 26, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2o4EP4D.

 

  • 2004 – The birth rate among women aged 15 to 19 is 13.6 per 1,000 – rate is down from 35.7 in 1994, and continues to fall to 10.3 by 2014.

May Luong, “Life After Teenage Motherhood,” Perspectives, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-001-X (May 1, 2008). Link: http://bit.ly/2DPLhnX.

 

  • 2014 – 3.6% of all live births are born to mothers in their 40s, up from 2.9% in 2004 and 1.4% in 1994.

Statistics Canada, Live Births, by Age and Parity of Mother, Canada (CANSIM Table 102-4508) (page last updated April 26, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2o4EP4D.

 

Fertility

  • 1970 – Fertility rate is 2.34 children per woman, continuing a steady downward trend from its post-war peak of 3.94 in 1959 during the peak of the baby boom.
  • 1980 – Fertility rate is 1.68 children per woman.
  • 1990 – Fertility rate is 1.71 children per woman.
  • 2000 – Fertility rate reaches a record low of 1.51 children per woman.
  • 2014 – Fertility rate steadily increases throughout the 2000s, peaking at 1.68 children per woman in 2008, then decreasing annually to 1.58 by 2014.

Statistics Canada, “Fertility: Fewer Children, Older Moms,” Canadian Megatrends, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-630-X (November 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/1xw6syQ.

 

  • 1974 – There are approximately 350,000 births across Canada. Despite consistent population growth throughout the period, the number of births hovers between 328,000 and 405,000 annually over the next 40 years.

Statistics Canada, Live Births, by Month, Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 102-4502) (page last updated October 18, 2018). Link: http://bit.ly/2E5CRID.

 

  • 1981 – Women aged 30 to 34 account for 19% of all births, up from 14% in 1970 and a rate that increases to 35% by 2014.

Statistics Canada, Live Births, by Age and Parity of Mother, Canada (CANSIM Table 102-4508) (page last updated April 26, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2o4EP4D.

 

  • 1991 – 2% of all live births were multiple births, a rate that gradually increases to 3.3% by 2014.

Statistics Canada, Live Births and Fetal Deaths (Stillbirths), by Type (Single or Multiple), Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 102-4515) (page last updated October 18, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/1f3GCWu.

 

  • 2000 – Number of births Canada reaches a post-war low of approximately 328,000, after having fallen steadily from a peak of 405,000 in 1990.

Statistics Canada, Live Births, by Month, Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 102-4502) (page last updated October 18, 2018). Link: http://bit.ly/2E5CRID.

 

  • 2014 – Fertility rates vary across Canada, ranging from a low of 1.41 children per woman in British Columbia to a high of 2.97 in Nunavut.

Statistics Canada, Crude Birth Rate, Age-Specific and Total Fertility Rates (Live Births), Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 102-4505) (page last updated October 18, 2018). Link: http://bit.ly/2DQ9N4i.

 

Labour force participation

  • 1976 – Labour force participation rate of women aged 25 to 54 is 52%.
  • 1980 – Labour force participation rate of women aged 25 to 54 is 60%.
  • 1990 – Labour force participation rate of women aged 25 to 54 is 76%.
  • 2000 – After reaching 79% in 2000, the increase in the labour force participation rate of women aged 25 to 54 slows down, hovering between 79% and 82% throughout the decade.
  • 2010–2017 – Labour force participation rate of women aged 25 to 54 is approximately 82% in 2010, and changes little between then and 2017 (83%).

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), by Sex and Detailed Age Group (CANSIM Table 282-0002) (page last updated January 5, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2p38FWs.

 

  • 1976 – Women account for 89% of all part-time workers, a share that gradually declines to 74% by 2017.

René Morissette, Feng Hou and Grant Schellenberg, “Full-Time Employment, 1976 to 2014,” Economic Insights, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-626-X (July 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/2nyh95V.

 

  • 1981 – 4 in 10 women aged 25 to 54 (41%) are employed full-time, up from 35% in 1976 and a rate that rises to 58% by 2014.

René Morissette, Feng Hou and Grant Schellenberg, “Full-Time Employment, 1976 to 2014,” Economic Insights, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-626-X (July 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/2nyh95V.

 

  • 1999 – 35% of self-employed workers are women, a steady increase from 26% in 1976. Rate then remains relatively stable, increasing slightly to 37% by 2017.

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), Employment by Class of Worker, North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and Sex (CANSIM Table 282-0012) (page last updated January 5, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2ps2TxK.

 

  • 2008 – 29% of women of women in dual-earner, opposite-sex married couples earn more than their husbands, more than double the share in 1976 (12%).

Cara Williams, “Economic Well-Being,” Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-503-X (December 2010). Link: http://bit.ly/1enJFZG.

 

  • 2014 – 70% of mothers with youngest child aged 0 to 2 are employed, up from 65% in 1998.

Sharanjit Uppal, “Employment Patterns of Families with Children,” Insights on Canadian Society, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X (June 24, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/1Nen7gR.

 

Education

  • 1970 – Women account for 22% of full-time graduate university students, a rate that increases over the next several decades to reach 55% by 2015.

Statistics Canada, “Full-Time University Enrolment, by Sex, Canada and by Province, Selected Years, 1920 to 1975,” Historical Statistics of Canada, Section W: Education, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-516-X (page last updated July 2, 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/2BJQwja.

Statistics Canada, Postsecondary Enrolments, by Registration Status, International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), Classification of Instructional Programs, Primary Grouping (CIP_PG), Sex and Student Status (CANSIM Table 477-0019). Link: http://bit.ly/2FzQOvp.

 

  • 1971 – Women account for 38% of full-time undergraduate students.

Statistics Canada, “Full-Time University Enrolment, by Sex, Canada and by Province, Selected Years, 1920 to 1975,” Historical Statistics of Canada, Section W: Education, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-516-X (page last updated July 2, 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/2BJQwja.

 

  • 1980 – Women account for nearly half (45%) of full-time undergraduate students.
  • 1980 – Women’s enrolment surpasses men in 1987, and then gradually increases over the next several decades, reaching 57% in 2015.

Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Trends in Higher Education Volume 1 – Enrolment (2011). Link: http://bit.ly/2myGeAi.

 

  • 1990 – 40% of women aged 25 to 54 have post-secondary qualifications.
  • 2000 – 54% of women aged 25 to 54 have post-secondary qualifications, a rate that continues to climb to 65% by 2009.

Martin Turcotte, “Women and Education,” Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-503-X (December 2011). Link: http://bit.ly/2EtTwmU.

 

  • 1992 – 61% of post-secondary part-time students are women, a rate that remains stable over the next several decades (59% in 2015).

Statistics Canada, Postsecondary Enrolments, by Registration Status, International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), Classification of Instructional Programs, Primary Grouping (CIP_PG), Sex and Student Status (CANSIM Table 477-0019). Link: http://bit.ly/2FzQOvp.

 

  • 2006 – 15% of lone mothers and 27% of mothers in couples (aged 25 to 64) have a bachelor’s degree or higher. Rates increase to 20% and 39%, respectively, by 2016.

Statistics Canada, “Education in Canada: Key Results from the 2016 Census,” The Daily (November 29, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2AJWiVY.

 

  • 2016 – 71% of women aged 25 to 54 have post-secondary qualifications.
  • 2016 – For the first time, women account for more than half (50.6%) of Canadians aged 25 to 34 with an earned doctorate.

Statistics Canada, “Education in Canada: Key Results from the 2016 Census,” The Daily (November 29, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2AJWiVY.

 

Stay-at-home moms

  • 1976 – Mothers account for nearly all (97%) stay-at-home parents.
  • 1980 – Mothers account for 98% of all stay-at-home parents, a rate that gradually declines throughout the 1980s to the present day.
  • 1990 – Mothers account for 94% of stay-at-home parents.
  • 2000 – Mothers account for 92% of stay-at-home parents.
  • 2010 – Mothers account for 89% of stay-at-home parents, a rate that remains steady up to 2015.

Sharanjit Uppal, “Employment Patterns of Families with Children,” Insights on Canadian Society, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X (June 24, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/1Nen7gR.

 

  • 1976 – Canada is home to 1.5 million stay-at-home mothers. Despite continued growth in the total population of Canada over the years, this number steadily declines over the next four decades.
  • 1986 – Canada is home to 827,000 stay-at-home mothers.
  • 1996 – Canada is home to 578,000 stay-at-home mothers.
  • 2006 – Canada is home to 468,000 stay-at-home mothers.
  • 2015 – Canada is home to 441,000 stay-at-home mothers.

Sharanjit Uppal, “Employment Patterns of Families with Children,” Insights on Canadian Society, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X (June 24, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/1Nen7gR.

 


FATHERHOOD

Family relationships

  • 1971 – 62% of men aged 15 and older are married (breakdown of common-law rates not available until 1991).
  • 1981 – 61% of men aged 15 and older are married.
  • 1991 – 54% of men aged 15 and older are married and 7% are living common-law.
  • 2001 – 49% of men aged 15 and older are married and 10% are living common-law.
  • 2011 – 46% of men are married, a share that increases slightly to 47% by 2017. 12% of men are living common-law, a share that declines slightly to 11% by 2017.

Statistics Canada, Estimates of Population, by Marital Status or Legal Marital Status, Age and Sex for July 1, Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 051-0042) (page last updated November 7, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2lSqvbR.

 

  • 1976 – Average age at first marriage for men is 25.1 years – gradually increases to 31 years by 2008.
  • 1981 – 45% of men in their 20s are a part of a couple, a share that steadily falls to 25% by 2011.
  • 2011 – 54% of men aged 30 to 34 report never having been married, more than triple the share in 1981 (15%).

Anne Milan, “Marital Status: Overview, 2011,” Report on the Demographic Situation in Canada, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 91-209-X (July 2013), Link: http://bit.ly/1kyjEQx.

 

  • 1993 – 56% of 11-year-old girls and 72% of boys said they found it easy to talk to their father about “things that really bother them,” a rate that increases to 66% and 75%, respectively, by 2013.

Health Behaviour In School-Aged Children (HBSC), “General Health, Physical Ailments and Medication Use,” The Health of Youth: A Cross-National Survey (1996). Link: http://bit.ly/2oPGYl4.

World Health Organization, “Growing Up Unequal: Gender and Socioeconomic Differences in Young People’s Health and Wellbeing,” Health Behaviour In School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study: International Report from the 2013/2014 Survey (2016). Link: http://bit.ly/2oYo6vt.

 

  • 2001 – Nearly 1 in 5 (18%) children aged 24 and under in lone-parent families live with their dad, up from 17% in 1981–1991 but lower than 22% to 23% during 1951–1971.

Statistics Canada, “Lone-Parent Families: The New Face of an Old Phenomenon,” Canadian Megatrends, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-630-X (March 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2E3tWr8.

 

Employment

  • 1976 – Men account for 70% of all full-time workers aged 25 to 54.
  • 1980 – Men account for 68% of all full-time workers aged 25 to 54.
  • 1990 – Men account for 61% of all full-time workers aged 25 to 54.
  • 2000 – Men account for 58% of all full-time workers aged 25 to 54, a rate that remains steady throughout the decade.
  • 2010 – Men account for 56% of all full-time workers aged 25 to 54, a rate that remains steady up to 2017.

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), by Sex and Detailed Age Group (CANSIM Table 282-0002) (page last updated January 5, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2p38FWs.

 

  • 1976  – 51% of families with at least one child under 16 were single-earner families with a working father, a share that drops to 17% by 2014.

Sharanjit Uppal, “Employment Patterns of Families with Children,” Insights on Canadian Society, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X (June 24, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/1Nen7gR.

 

  • 1987 – Men account for 15% of part-time workers aged 25 to 54, up from 11% in 1976 and a share that gradually increases to 26% by 2017.

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), by Sex and Detailed Age Group (CANSIM Table 282-0002) (page last updated January 5, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2p38FWs.

 

  • 1999 – 65% of self-employed workers in are men, down from 74% in 1974, a decline that has since stabilized (63% in 2017).

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), Employment by Class of Worker, North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and Sex (CANSIM Table 282-0012) (page last updated January 5, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2ps2TxK.

 

  • 2000 – 3% of all recent fathers across Canada report that they take or intend to take parental leave, a rate that increases to 30% by 2016.

Katherine Marshall, “Fathers’ Use of Paid Parental Leave,” Perspectives on Labour and Income, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-001-X (June 2008). Link: http://bit.ly/1UgSdfz.

Statistics Canada, “Employment Insurance Coverage Survey, 2015,” The Daily (November 16, 2016). Link: http://bit.ly/2oTsTPG.

 

  • 2017 – Labour force participation rate of men aged 25 to 54 is 91%, a gradual decline from 95% in 1976.

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), by Sex and Detailed Age Group (CANSIM Table 282-0002) (page last updated January 5, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2p38FWs.

 

Care and unpaid work

  • 1976 – Fathers account for less than 2% of stay-at-home parents, a share that gradually increases to 11% by 2015.

Statistics Canada, “Changing Profile of Stay-at-Home Parents,” Canadian Megatrends, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-630-X (September 28, 2016). Link: http://bit.ly/2FDTkAR.

Sharanjit Uppal, “Employment Patterns of Families with Children,” Insights on Canadian Society, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X (June 24, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/1Nen7gR.

 

  • 1976 – Men account for 21% of Canadians who identify as an unpaid family worker, a share that increases to 41% by 2017.

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), Employment by Class of Worker, North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and Sex (CANSIM Table 282-0012) (page last updated January 5, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2ps2TxK.

 

  • 1986 – 51% of fathers report that they participate in household work
  • 1986 – 29% of fathers report that they prepare family meals
  • 1986 – 33% of surveyed fathers report that they provided help and care to their children that day, a rate that increases to 49% by 2015.

Patricia Houle, Martin Turcotte and Michael Wendt, “Changes in Parents’ Participation in Domestic Tasks and Care for Children from 1986 to 2015,” Spotlight on Canadians: Results from the General Social Survey, Statistics Canada catalogue no.89-652-X (June 1, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2rJ4AZL.

 

  • 1998 – Men who report engaging in unpaid work spend an average 190 minutes (3.2 hours) on these tasks, an amount that increases to 205 minutes (3.4 hours) by 2010.

Statistics Canada, General Social Survey – 2010: Overview of the Time Use of Canadians, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-647-X (July 2011). Link: http://bit.ly/2EyqRgk.

 

  • 2005 – Men report spending an average 345 minutes (5.8 hours) per day with family, a rate that increases to 379 minutes (6.3 hours) by 2010.

Statistics Canada, General Social Survey – 2010: Overview of the Time Use of Canadians, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-647-X (July 2011). Link: http://bit.ly/2EyqRgk.

 

  • 2007 – 43% of caregivers aged 45 and older are men, a rate that climbs to 47% by 2012.

Statistics Canada, ”Table 3-1: Population Providing Care for A Long-Term Health Condition or Physical Limitation, by Sex and Age — Canada,” 2007 General Social Survey: Care Tables, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 89-633-X (page last updated July 17, 2009). Link: http://bit.ly/2ny8AHX.

 

  • 2015 – 76% of fathers report that they participate in household work
  • 2015 – 59% of fathers report that they prepare family meals, more than twice the rate in 1986.

Patricia Houle, Martin Turcotte and Michael Wendt, “Changes in Parents’ Participation in Domestic Tasks and Care for Children from 1986 to 2015,” Spotlight on Canadians: Results from the General Social Survey, Statistics Canada catalogue no.89-652-X (June 1, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2rJ4AZL.

 

Work–life

  • 1976 – Men aged 25 to 54 with children aged 5 and under work an average 43.6 hours per week.
  • 1996 – Men aged 25 to 54 with children aged 5 and under work an average 43.2 hours per week.
  • 2017 – Men aged 25 to 54 with children aged 5 and under work an average 41 hours per week.

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), by Usual Hours Worked, Main or All Jobs, Sex and Age Group (CANSIM Table 282-0016) (page last updated January 5, 2018). Link: http://bit.ly/2BNlPtn.

 

  • 1976 – Fathers account for less than 2% of stay-at-home parents, a share that gradually increases to 11% by 2015.

Sharanjit Uppal, “Employment Patterns of Families with Children,” Insights on Canadian Society, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X (June 24, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/1Nen7gR.

Statistics Canada, “Changing Profile of Stay-at-Home Parents,” Canadian Megatrends, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-630-X (September 28, 2016). Link: http://bit.ly/2FDTkAR.

 

  • 1987 – Fathers of children under the age of 5 reported missing an average 1.2 days of paid employment in 1987 due to personal or family responsibilities, a rate that increases to 2.3 by 2017.

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), Work Absence Statistics of Full-Time Employees by Sex and Presence of Children (CANSIM Table 279-0033) (page last updated January 5, 2018). Link: http://bit.ly/2FDSKDj.

 

  • 1992 – Regulated full- or part-time centre-based childcare spaces are available for 11.5% of children aged 0 to 5, a share that climbs to 24.1% by 2014.

Martha Friendly et al., Early Childhood Education and Care in Canada 2014, Childcare Resource and Research Unit (December 31, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/2uFtTO1.

 

  • 2000 – 3% of all recent fathers across Canada report that they take or intend to take parental leave, a rate that increases to 30% by 2016.

Katherine Marshall, “Fathers’ Use of Paid Parental Leave,” Perspectives on Labour and Income, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-001-X (June 2008). Link: http://bit.ly/1UgSdfz.

Statistics Canada, “Employment Insurance Coverage Survey, 2015,” The Daily (November 16, 2016). Link: http://bit.ly/2oTsTPG.

 

  • 2005 – Men report spending an average 345 minutes (5.8 hours) per day with family, a rate that increases to 379 minutes (6.3 hours) by 2010.

Statistics Canada, General Social Survey – 2010: Overview of the Time Use of Canadians, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-647-X (July 2011). Link: http://bit.ly/2EyqRgk.

 

  • 2014 – 79% of fathers with children under age 5 report being satisfied with their work–life balance.

Statistics Canada, “Satisfaction with Work–Life Balance: Fact Sheet,” Spotlight on Canadians: Results from the General Social Survey, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-652-X (April 14, 2016). Link: http://bit.ly/1S7H2nb.

 


DEMOGRAPHICS

Life expectancy

  • 1971 – Life expectancy at birth is 76.6 years for women and 69.6 years for men.
  • 1981 – Life expectancy at birth is 79.1 years for women and 72 years for men.
  • 1991 – Life expectancy at birth is 80.7 years for women and 74.4 years for men.
  • 2001 – Life expectancy at birth is 82 years for women and 76.9 years for men.
  • 2012 – Life expectancy at birth is 83.9 years for women and 79.8 years for men – projected to grow to 88.6 and 85.7 years, respectively, by 2075.

Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, “Mortality Projections for Social Security Programs in Canada,” Actuarial Studies (April 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/2gZfFh5.

 

  • 1971 – Life expectancy at age 65 is 17.6 years for women and 13.9 years for men. This means that women and men in Canada who reached age 65 could expect to live to age 82.6 and 78.9, respectively.
  • 1981 – Life expectancy at age 65 is 19 years for women and 14.7 years for men.
  • 1991 – Life expectancy at age 65 is 19.7 years for women and 15.6 years for men.
  • 2001 – Life expectancy at age 65 is 20.4 years for women and 17 years for men. Increase continues, reaching 22 years for women and 19.2 years for men by 2012.
  • 2010 – An estimated 9 in 10 Canadians can expect to reach age 65, up from 6 in 10 in 1925.

Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, “Mortality Projections for Social Security Programs in Canada,” Actuarial Studies (April 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/2gZfFh5.

 

Seniors and elders

  • 1971 – 8% of Canada’s total population are seniors (aged 65 and older), accounting for 1.8M people.
  • 1981 – 9.6% of Canada’s total population are seniors (2.4M).
  • 1991 – 11.5% of Canada’s total population are seniors (3.2M), a share that continues to grow to 12.6% by 2001 (3.9M).
  • 2011 – 14.4% of Canada’s total population are seniors, a share that increases to 16.9% by 2017 (6.2M) and is projected to reach 23% by 2031.

Statistics Canada, Estimates of Population, by Age Group and Sex for July 1, Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 051-0001) (page last updated September 27, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2s2rlsN.

 

  • 1985 – 6.8% of grandparents are aged 80 and older, a share that nearly doubles to 13.5% by 2011.

Rachel Margolis, “The Changing Demography of Grandparenthood,” Journal of Marriage and Family 78:3 (2016). Link: http://bit.ly/20y0dZ8.

 

  • 1991 – 6.7% of seniors in Canada participate in the paid labour force – rate down from 9.2% in 1976, but increases steadily to reach 14.2% by 2017.

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), by Sex and Detailed Age Group (CANSIM Table 282-0002) (page last updated January 5, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2p38FWs.

 

  • 2001  – Grandparents have an average 4.8 grandchildren – declines to 4.2 by 2011.

Anne Milan, Nadine Laflamme and Irene Wong, “Diversity of Grandparents Living with Their Grandchildren,” Insights on Canadian Society, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X (April 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/2mPcug5.

 

  • 2001 – Canada is home to 3,795 centenarians (aged 100+), the first year for which this data is available.
  • 2011 – Canada is home to 5,825 centenarians, who become the fastest-growing age group between then and 2016 (+41%), reaching 8,230 that year.

Statistics Canada, “Census in Brief: A Portrait of the Population Aged 85 and Older in 2016 in Canada,” 2016 Census Analytical Products (May 3, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2qt2WdZ.

 

Children and youth

  • 1971 – 29% of Canada’s total population are children aged 0 to 14 (6.4M).
  • 1981 – 22% of Canada’s total population are children aged 0 to 14 (5.5M).
  • 1991 – 21% of Canada’s total population are children aged 0 to 14 (5.8M).
  • 2001 – 19% of Canada’s total population are children aged 0 to 14 (5.9M).
  • 2011 – 16% of Canada’s total population are children aged 0 to 14, a rate that remains steady up to 2017.

Statistics Canada, Estimates of Population, by Age Group and Sex for July 1, Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 051-0001) (page last updated September 27, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2s2rlsN.

 

  • 1971 – 39% of children under age 25 living in lone-parent families lived with a widowed parent, a share that drops significantly to 6% by 2011.

Nora Bohnert, Anne Milan and Heather Lathe, “Enduring Diversity: Living Arrangements of Children in Canada over 100 Years of the Census,” Demographic Documents, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 91F0015M (April 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/2DVBInz.

 

  • 1981 – 27% of young adults in their 20s live in the parental home, a share that rises to 42% by 2011.

Statistics Canada, “Living Arrangements of Young Adults Aged 20 to 29,” 2011 Analytical Products, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 98-311-X-2011003 (December 22, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/18Frq5X.

  • 1992 – Regulated full- or part-time centre-based child care spaces are available for 12% of children aged 0 to 5, a share that climbs to 24% by 2014.

Martha Friendly et al., Early Childhood Education and Care in Canada 2014, Childcare Resource and Research Unit (December 31, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/2uFtTO1.

 

  • 2001 – 6.8% of all children aged 0 to 14 lived with at least one grandparent (387K), a share that climbs to 8.9% (519K) by 2016.

Statistics Canada, “Family Characteristics of Children Aged 0 to 14 Including Presence of Grandparents in Private Households for the Population by Age Group 0 to 14, 2016 Counts, Canada, Provinces and Territories, 2016 Census – 100% Data,” 2016 Highlight Tables (page last updated July 18, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2ExHHvR.

 

  • 2016 – 9.8% of all children aged 0 to 14 are living in a stepfamily, relatively unchanged since 2011 (10%).

Statistics Canada, “Census in Brief: Portrait of Children’s Family Life in Canada in 2016,” Analytical Products, 2016 Census (August 2, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2DO4mmw.

 

Immigrant families

  • 1971 – 15% of the population in Canada was born outside the country.
  • 1981 – 16% of the population in Canada was born outside the country.
  • 1991 – 16% of the population in Canada was born outside the country.
  • 2001 – 18% of the population in Canada was born outside the country.
  • 2011 – 21% of the population in Canada was born outside the country, a share that climbs slightly to 22% by 2016 and is projected to grow to 25% to 30% by 2036.

Statistics Canada, “Figure 1 Number and Share of the Foreign-Born Population in Canada, 1901 to 2006,” 2006 Census: Analysis Series (page last updated November 20, 2009). Link: http://bit.ly/2EccqkI.

Statistics Canada, “2011 National Household Survey: Immigration, Place of Birth, Citizenship, Ethnic Origin, Visible Minorities, Language and Religion,” The Daily (May 8, 2013). Link: http://bit.ly/13hGjpq.

Statistics Canada, “Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity: Key Results from the 2016 Census,” The Daily (October 25, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2lfjXqC.

 

  • 1981 – One-third (33%) of immigrants are admitted under the family class – rate fluctuates between 24% and 45% in the decades that follow.
  • 1994 – 15% of immigrants are admitted as refugees – rate hovers between 9% and 17% until it jumps to 24% in 2016 (partly the result of Syrian refugee resettlement).
  • 2006 – 3.6% of Canada’s total population is made up of recent immigrants (arrived in the past 5 years), a rate that remains relatively stable by 2016 (3.5%).
  • 2016 – 38% of children aged 0 to 14 are foreign-born or had at least one foreign-born parent.

Statistics Canada, “Immigration and Ethnocultural Diversity: Key Results from the 2016 Census,” The Daily (October 25, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2lfjXqC.

 


FAMILIES AND HOUSEHOLDS

Family structure

  • 1971 – There are 5 million Census families in Canada, nearly doubling to reach 9.8 million families by 2016.

Statistics Canada, “Census Families, Number and Average Size,” Annual Demographic Statistics, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 91-213-X (page last updated September 19, 2006). Link: http://bit.ly/1sssGRQ.

 

  • 1971 – 91% of all Census families are married couple families.
  • 1971 – 9% of all Census families are lone-parent families.
  • 1981 – 83% of all Census families are married couple families.
  • 1981 – 11% of all Census families are lone-parent families.
  • 1981 – Common-law couples are counted for the first time in the Census (6% of all Census families).
  • 1991 – 77% of all Census families are married couple families.
  • 1991 – 10% of all Census families are lone-parent families.
  • 1991 – 13% of all Census families are common-law couple families.
  • 2001 – 70% of all Census families are married couple families.
  • 2001 – 14% of all Census families are lone-parent families.
  • 2001 – 16% of all Census families are common-law couple families.
  • 2011 – 67% of all Census families are married couple families (66% in 2016).
  • 2011 – 17% of all Census families are lone-parent families (16% in 2016).
  • 2011 – 16% of all Census families are common-law couple families (18% in 2016).

Anne Milan, “Marital Status: Overview, 2011,” Report on the Demographic Situation in Canada, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 91-209-X (July 2013), Link: http://bit.ly/1kyjEQx.

 

  • 1981 – 59% of women and 45% of men in their 20s are part of a couple – falls to 37% and 25%, respectively, by 2011.
  • 1991 – 17% of lone parents have never been married, a rate that almost doubles to 32% by 2011.

Anne Milan, “Marital Status: Overview, 2011,” Report on the Demographic Situation in Canada, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 91-209-X (July 2013), Link: http://bit.ly/1kyjEQx.

Statistics Canada, “Families, Households and Marital Status: Key Results from the 2016 Census,” The Daily (August 2, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2vm6Vva.

 

  • 2005 – Same-sex marriage is legalized across Canada (7,500 same-sex married couples in 2006 – 33% of all same-sex couples).
  • 2011 – Stepfamilies are counted for the first time in the Census. There are 509,000 stepfamilies – 12.6% of all families with children aged 24 and under (518,000 and 12.4% in 2016).

Statistics Canada, “Portrait of Families and Living Arrangements in Canada,” 2011 Analytical Products, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 98-312-X-2011001 (September 2012). Link: http://bit.ly/1Vn9eBW.

Statistics Canada, “Families, Households and Marital Status: Key Results from the 2016 Census,” The Daily (August 2, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2vm6Vva.

 

Family finances

  • 1976 – 4% of single-earner couple families with at least one child under 16 included a breadwinning mother, a rate that climbs to 21% by 2014.
  • 1976 – 36% of families have two earners, a rate that climbs to 69% by 2014.

Statistics Canada, “The Rise of the Dual-Earner Family with Children,” Canadian Megatrends, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-630-X (May 30, 2016). Link: http://bit.ly/25wbfED.

Sharanjit Uppal, “Employment Patterns of Families with Children,” Insights on Canadian Society, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X (June 24, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/1Nen7gR.

 

  • 1980 – Low-income rate (LIM-AT) for all households is 10.5% – increases to 14.2% by 2015.

Statistics Canada, Low Income Statistics by Age, Sex and Economic Family Type, Canada, Provinces and Selected Census Metropolitan Areas (CMAs) (CANSIM Table 206-0041) (page last updated May 26, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2yYstNR.

Statistics Canada, “Low-income Indicators (4), Individual Low-income Status (6), Age (15), Sex (3) and Year (2) for the Population in Private Households of Canada, Provinces and Territories, Census Metropolitan Areas and Census Agglomerations, 2006 Census – 20% Sample Data and 2016 Census – 100% Data,” Income Highlight Tables, 2016 Census (September 12, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2ysxLCR.

 

  • 1985 – 21% of married or common-law couples received “fairly equal” incomes – rate climbs to 32% by 2015.

Statistics Canada, “Household Income in Canada: Key Results from the 2016 Census,” The Daily (September 13, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2i0UVdF.

 

  • 1996 – 3% of senior women and 10% of senior men are in the paid labour market – rates increase to 10% and 19%, respectively, by 2017.

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), by Sex and Detailed Age Group (CANSIM Table 282-0002) (page last updated January 5, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2p38FWs.

 

  • 1999 – 8% of families report having consumer (non-mortgage) debt that was larger than their annual after-tax family income – rate nearly doubles to 14% by 2012.

Insights on Canadian Society, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X (March 29, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/2nQsPRg.

 

  • 2001 – Median total family income among all Census families is $34,100.
  • 2011 – Median total family income among all Census families is $45,390 – increases to $49,840 by 2015.

Statistics Canada, “Household Income in Canada: Key Results from the 2016 Census,” The Daily (September 13, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2i0UVdF.

 

  • 2008 – 29% of women of women in dual-earner, opposite-sex married couples earn more than their husbands, more than double the share in 1976 (12%).

Cara Williams, “Economic Well-Being,” Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-503-X (December 2010). Link: http://bit.ly/1enJFZG.

 

  • 2017 – Average consumer (non-mortgage) debt among debtholders is nearly $22,600.

Equifax Canada, Increases to Consumer Debt Highest in Ontario, Lowest in Western Canada (September 5, 2017). Link: http://mwne.ws/2Eo1rVe.

 

Household size

  • 1971 – Average household size is 3.5 people.
  • 1981 – Average household size is 2.9 people.
  • 1991 – Average household size is 2.7 people.
  • 2001 – Average household size is 2.6 people.
  • 2011 – Average household size is 2.5 people (falls to 2.4 in 2016).

Environics Analytics, Families, Households, Marital Status, and Revised Language Data (August 22, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2CDemCz.

 

  • 1971– 26% of Canadian households contain five or more people – share falls over the next several, reaching only 8% of homes by 2016.

Statistics Canada, “The Shift to Smaller Households over the Past Century,” Canadian Megatrends, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11630X (November 23, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/1Xlpl2f.

 

  • 1981 – One-person households (20%) surpass households of 5+ people (15%) for the first time.
  • 1991 – 23% of households are one-person households, up from 13% in 1971 – share increases to become most common household type by 2016 (28%).

Environics Analytics, Families, Households, Marital Status, and Revised Language Data (August 22, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2CDemCz.

 

  • 2001 – 32% of all households are couples with children – rate falls to 27% by 2016.
  • 2016 – 2.9% of households are multi-generational (3+ generations), representing the fastest-growing household type since 2001 (+38% to reach 404K).

Statistics Canada, “Families, Households and Marital Status: Key Results from the 2016 Census,” The Daily (August 2, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2vm6Vva.

 

Housing

  • 1971 – Single-family homes account for 38% of all new residential construction – rises to 61% by 2014 as the construction of multi-family units (e.g. apartment buildings, apartment-condominiums) increases.
  • 1991 – Multi-family homes account for 45% of all new residential construction – rises to 62% by 2014.

Statistics Canada, “Evolution of Housing in Canada, 1957 to 2014,” Canadian Megatrends, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-630-X (March 3, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/1kRtr61.

 

  • 1975 – Average size of newly built houses in Canada is 1,750 sq. ft. – increases to 2,000 sq. ft. by 2013.

Marc Lavoie, “Cost of Home Today Is Double the Amount in Weeks of Labour Time Compared to 1970s: New Study,” The Broadbent Blog (May 2016). Link: http://bit.ly/1qfz2W1.

 

  • 1981 – 10% of seniors live in collective dwellings (e.g. health care facilities, nursing homes), a rate that falls to nearly 8% by 2016.

Anne Milan, Irene Wong, Mireille Vézina, “Emerging Trends in Living Arrangements and Conjugal Unions for Current and Future Seniors,” Insights on Canadian Society, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X (February 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/2nGHW0p.

Statistics Canada, “Age and Sex Highlight Tables, 2016 Census,” Analytical Products, 2016 Census (May 3, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2pgq2Re.

  • 1984 – Average house in Canada takes an estimated 184 weeks of labour time at the average weekly wage to purchase (same as in 1971) – increases to 400 weeks by 2015.

Marc Lavoie, “Cost of Home Today Is Double the Amount in Weeks of Labour Time Compared to 1970s: New Study,” The Broadbent Blog (May 2016). Link: http://bit.ly/1qfz2W1.

 

  • 2001 – 21% of households in Canada spent 30% or more of their total income on shelter, a rate that increases slightly to 24% by 2016.

Canada Housing and Mortgage Corporation (CMHC), “2001 Census Housing Series: Issue 1 Housing Affordability Improves,” Housing Affordability and Needs Studies Based on Census Data (September 2003). Link: http://bit.ly/2nOzVWK.

Statistics Canada, “Housing in Canada: Key Results from the 2016 Census,” The Daily (October 25, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2ySorZc.

 

  • 2001 – 31% of young adults aged 20 to 34 live with at least one parent, a share that increases to 35% by 2016.

Statistics Canada, “Census in Brief: Young Adults Living with their Parents in Canada in 2016,” Analytical Products, 2016 Census (August 2, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2ipgfcC.

 

  • 2016 – 68% of households own their own homes – rate stable since 2006, but higher than in 1991 (63%).

Statistics Canada, “Housing in Canada: Key Results from the 2016 Census,” The Daily (October 25, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2ySorZc.

 

  • 2016 – 19% of people with an Aboriginal identity live in a home in need of major repair, down from 23% in 2006.

Statistics Canada, “Percentage of Population Living in Crowded Dwellings and in Dwellings in Need of Major Repairs, Canada and Selected Cities, 2006,” 2006 Census: Analysis Series (page last updated September 22, 2006). Link: http://bit.ly/2nMmfeI.

Statistics Canada, “Census in Brief: The Housing Conditions of Aboriginal People in Canada,” Analytical Products, 2016 Census (October 25, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2nMqTJK.

 

 


HEALTH AND WELL-BEING

Babies and birth

  • 1970 – Women aged 30 to 34 account for 14% of all births, a rate that increases to 35% by 2014.

Statistics Canada, Live Births, by Age and Parity of Mother, Canada (CANSIM Table 102-4508) (page last updated April 26, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2o4EP4D.

 

  • 1974 – There are approximately 350,000 births across Canada. Despite consistent population growth throughout the period, the number of births hovers between 328,000 and 405,000 annually over the next 40 years.
  • 1981 – There are approximately 371,000 births across Canada.
  • 1991 – There are approximately 403,000 births across Canada.
  • 2000 – Number of births in Canada reaches a post-war low of approximately 328,000, after having fallen steadily from a peak of 405,000 in 1990.
  • 2011 – There are approximately 378,000 births across Canada – births have exceeded 380,000 since then, reaching 384,000 in 2014.

Statistics Canada, Live Births, by Month, Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 102-4502) (page last updated October 18, 2018). Link: http://bit.ly/2E5CRID.

 

  • 1991 – 2% of all live births were multiple births, a rate that gradually increases to 3.3% by 2014.

Statistics Canada, Live Births and Fetal Deaths (Stillbirths), by Type (Single or Multiple), Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 102-4515) (page last updated October 18, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/1f3GCWu.

 

  • 2000 – Number of births Canada reaches a post-war low of approximately 328,000, after having fallen steadily from a peak of 405,000 in 1990.

Statistics Canada, Live Births, by Month, Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 102-4502) (page last updated October 18, 2018). Link: http://bit.ly/2E5CRID.

 

  • 2000 – 3% of all recent fathers across Canada report that they take or intend to take parental leave, a rate that increases to 30% by 2016.

Katherine Marshall, “Fathers’ Use of Paid Parental Leave,” Perspectives on Labour and Income, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-001-X (June 2008). Link: http://bit.ly/1UgSdfz.

Statistics Canada, “Employment Insurance Coverage Survey, 2015,” The Daily (November 16, 2016). Link: http://bit.ly/2oTsTPG.

 

  • 2014 – Infant mortality rate is 4.7 deaths per 1,000 births, down significantly from 76 per 1,000 in 1931.

Statistics Canada, Deaths and Mortality Rates, by Age Group and Sex, Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 102-0504) (page last updated November 15, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2BOGgq5.

 

Health

  • 1976 – On average, every Canadian consumes 56 litres of soft drinks annually – nearly doubles to 100 litres by 2002.

Canadian Institute for Health Information, Improving the Health of Canadians 2004 (2004). Link: http://bit.ly/2nwubSb.

 

  • 1985 – 70% of grandparents rate their health as “good/very good/excellent” – rate climbs to 77% by 2011.
  • 1985 – 31% of grandparents rate their health as “fair/poor” – rate falls to 23% by 2011.

Rachel Margolis and Natalie Iciaszczyk, “The Changing Health of Canadian Grandparents,” Canadian Studies in Population 42:3–4 (2015). Link: http://bit.ly/2nEGFpM.

 

  • 1985 – An estimated 6.1 Canadian adults are obese – rate triples to 18.3% by 2011.

Laurie K. Twells, Deborah M. Gregory, Jacinta Reddigan and William K. Midodzi, “Current and Predicted Prevalence of Obesity in Canada: A Trend Analysis,” CMAJ 2:1 (2014). Link: http://bit.ly/2DXCJLW.

 

  • 1996 – 37% of Canadians report having 6 or more close relatives – increases to 44% by 2008
  • 1996 – 38% of Canadians report having 6 or more close friends – decreases to 35% by 2008.

Vanier Institute of the Family, Families Count: Profiling Canada’s Families IV (October 4, 2010). Link: http://bit.ly/2EAyCmd.

 

  • 1996 – Approximately 27% of Canadians report that they smoke – rate drops to 17% by 2016.

Jason Gilmore, Report on Smoking Prevalence in Canada, 1985 to 1999, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 82F0077XIE (January 2000). Link: http://bit.ly/2s6P3E6.

Statistics Canada, “Smoking, 2016,” Health Fact Sheets, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 82-625-X (September 27, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2EIVgsE.

 

  • 2003 – 64% of people in Canada report having a strong sense of belonging to their local community – increases slightly to just over 66% by 2014.

Statistics Canada, Health Indicator Profile, Annual Estimates, by Age Group and Sex, Canada, Provinces, Territories, Health Regions (2013 Boundaries) and Peer Groups (CANSIM Table 105-0501) (page last updated March 4, 2016). Link: http://bit.ly/2j6UIWU.

 

  • 2009 – 16% of adults aged 18–79 are meeting the Canadian physical activity guidelines recommendations – increases to 18% by 2015.

Statistics Canada, Distribution of the Household Population Meeting/Not Meeting the Canadian Physical Activity Guidelines, by Sex and Age Group (CANSIM Table 117-0019) (page last updated April 19, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2sYfdJr.

 

  • 2014 – 59% of Canadians rate their health as “very good/excellent” – rate remains steady since 2003.
  • 2014 – 7.8% of Canadians have been diagnosed with a mood disorder, a steady increase from 5.3% in 2003.

Statistics Canada, Health Indicator Profile, Annual Estimates, by Age Group and Sex, Canada, Provinces, Territories, Health Regions (2013 Boundaries) and Peer Groups (CANSIM Table 105-0501) (page last updated March 4, 2016). Link: http://bit.ly/2j6UIWU.

 

Life expectancy

  • 1971 – Life expectancy at birth is 76.6 years for women and 69.6 years for men.
  • 1981 – Life expectancy at birth is 79.1 years for women and 72 years for men.
  • 1991 – Life expectancy at birth is 80.7 years for women and 74.4 years for men.
  • 2001 – Life expectancy at birth is 82 years for women and 76.9 years for men.
  • 2012 – Life expectancy at birth is 83.9 years for women and 79.8 years for men – projected to grow to 88.6 and 85.7 years, respectively, by 2075.

Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, “Mortality Projections for Social Security Programs in Canada,” Actuarial Studies (April 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/2gZfFh5.

 

  • 1971 – Life expectancy at age 65 is 17.6 years for women and 13.9 years for men. This means that women and men in Canada who reached age 65 could expect to live to age 82.6 and 78.9, respectively.
  • 1981 – Life expectancy at age 65 is 19 years for women and 14.7 years for men.
  • 1991 – Life expectancy at age 65 is 19.7 years for women and 15.6 years for men.
  • 2001 – Life expectancy at age 65 is 20.4 years for women and 17 years for men. Increase continues, reaching 22 years for women and 19.2 years for men by 2012.
  • 2010 – An estimated 9 in 10 Canadians can expect to reach age 65, up from 6 in 10 in 1925.

Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, “Mortality Projections for Social Security Programs in Canada,” Actuarial Studies (April 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/2gZfFh5.

 

Death and Dying

  • 1970 – There are nearly 156,000 deaths in Canada – increases nearly every year afterward as Canada’s population grows and ages, reaching more than 259,000 by 2014.

Statistics Canada, Deaths, by Place of Residence and Place of Occurrence, Canada, Provinces, Territories and Outside Canada (CANSIM Table 102-0501) (page last updated November 15, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2FBJXlh.

 

  • 1971 – Life expectancy at birth is 76.6 years for women and 69.6 years for men – rises steadily to 83.9 years and 79.8 years, respectively, by 2012.

Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, “Mortality Projections for Social Security Programs in Canada,” Actuarial Studies (April 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/2gZfFh5.

 

  • 1980 – An estimated 328 of every 100,000 deaths is due to cancer, a death rate that climbs by 21% to reach 259 per 100,000 by 2012.
  • 1980 – An estimated 741 of every 100,000 deaths is due to circulatory system diseases (e.g. heart disease, stroke), a death rate that drops by 68% to reach 236 per 100,000 by 2012.

Statistics Canada, “Changes in Causes of Death, 1950 to 2012,” Canadian Megatrends, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-630-X (March 3, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/22A5vEZ.

 

  • 1990 – Maternal mortality rate is 7 per 100,000 live births, down significantly from 508 deaths in 1931. Rate increases to 9 deaths from 1995 to 2010, but then falls back to 7 by 2015.

Statistics Canada, Selected Mortality Statistics, Canada, 1921–1990, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 82-548 (March 1994). Link: http://bit.ly/2kcxaiP.

World Health Organization, Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990 to 2015: Estimates by WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, The World Bank and the United Nations Population Division (November 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/2oYxNvA.

 

  • 1991 – Infant mortality rate is 6.4 deaths per 1,000, down significantly from 76 per 1,000 in 1931 – rate falls to 4.7 by 2014.

Jill Strachan and Surinder Wadhera, “Selected Mortality Statistics, Canada, 1921–1990,” Health Reports, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 82-003-X (November 9, 1993). Link: http://bit.ly/2oRnqLu.

Statistics Canada, Deaths and Mortality Rates, by Age Group and Sex, Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 102-0504) (page last updated March 8, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2oxlOTO.

 

  • 2000 – Suicide accounts for 23% of deaths among youth aged 15–24 – rate stable since then, ranging between 18% (2006) and 25% (2014). Suicide is the second-leading cause of death for this age group, with accidents consistently the leading cause (which declined from a peak of 44% in 2002 to 37% in 2014).

Statistics Canada, Leading Causes of Death, Total Population, By Age Group and Sex, Canada (CANSIM Table 102-0561) (page last updated November 15, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2s9diBF.

 

  • 2012 – Death rate from all causes is 580 per 100,000 women (down 61% from 1950) and 843 per 100,000 men (down 54% since 1950).

Statistics Canada, “Changes in Causes of Death, 1950 to 2012,” Canadian Megatrends, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-630-X (March 3, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/22A5vEZ.

 

  • 2014 – 62% of all deaths occur in a hospital, down from 77% in 1991.

Statistics Canada, Deaths in Hospital and Elsewhere, Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 102-0509) (page last updated November 15, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2s67lFw.

 


Page last updated February 8, 2018