Families in Canada Interactive Timeline – Sources

Below you can find a complete list of sources used in the Families in Canada Interactive Timeline. Statistics and sources are grouped by topic/subtopic (parallel structure with the timeline), listed chronologically with trends grouped together.

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MOTHERHOOD

Maternal age

  • 1970 – Average age of first-time mothers is 23.7 years.
  • 1980 – Average age of first-time mothers is 24.9 years.
  • 1990 – Average age of first-time mothers is 25.9 years.
  • 2000 – Average age of first-time mothers is 27.1 years.
  • 2011 – Average age of first-time mothers is 28.5 years.

Statistics Canada, “Fertility: Fewer Children, Older Moms,” Canadian Megatrends, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-630-X (November 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/1xw6syQ.

 

  • 1976 – Average age of all mothers giving birth is 26.7 years, which steadily increases to 30.2 years by 2011.

Statistics Canada, “Fertility: Fewer Children, Older Moms,” Canadian Megatrends, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-630-X (November 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/1xw6syQ.

 

  • 1981 – Women aged 30 and older accounted for 24% of all births in Canada, a rate that more than doubles to 55% by 2014.

Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada, Age and Fertility (n.d.). Link: http://bit.ly/2mdWBih.

Statistics Canada, Live Births, by Age and Parity of Mother, Canada (CANSIM Table 102-4508) (page last updated April 26, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2o4EP4D.

 

  • 1994 – Women aged 30 and older account for 28% of all first-time mothers, a rate that increases to 44% by 2014.

Statistics Canada, Live Births, by Age and Parity of Mother, Canada (CANSIM Table 102-4508) (page last updated April 26, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2o4EP4D.

 

  • 2004 – The birth rate among women aged 15 to 19 is 13.6 per 1,000 – rate is down from 35.7 in 1994, and continues to fall to 10.3 by 2014.

May Luong, “Life After Teenage Motherhood,” Perspectives, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-001-X (May 1, 2008). Link: http://bit.ly/2DPLhnX.

 

  • 2014 – 3.6% of all live births are born to mothers in their 40s, up from 2.9% in 2004 and 1.4% in 1994.

Statistics Canada, Live Births, by Age and Parity of Mother, Canada (CANSIM Table 102-4508) (page last updated April 26, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2o4EP4D.

 

Fertility

  • 1970 – Fertility rate is 2.34 children per woman, continuing a steady downward trend from its post-war peak of 3.94 in 1959 during the peak of the baby boom.
  • 1980 – Fertility rate is 1.68 children per woman.
  • 1990 – Fertility rate is 1.71 children per woman.
  • 2000 – Fertility rate reaches a record low of 1.51 children per woman.
  • 2014 – Fertility rate steadily increases throughout the 2000s, peaking at 1.68 children per woman in 2008, then decreasing annually to 1.58 by 2014.

Statistics Canada, “Fertility: Fewer Children, Older Moms,” Canadian Megatrends, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-630-X (November 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/1xw6syQ.

 

  • 1974 – There are approximately 350,000 births across Canada. Despite consistent population growth throughout the period, the number of births hovers between 328,000 and 405,000 annually over the next 40 years.

Statistics Canada, Live Births, by Month, Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 102-4502) (page last updated October 18, 2018). Link: http://bit.ly/2E5CRID.

 

  • 1981 – Women aged 30 to 34 account for 19% of all births, up from 14% in 1970 and a rate that increases to 35% by 2014.

Statistics Canada, Live Births, by Age and Parity of Mother, Canada (CANSIM Table 102-4508) (page last updated April 26, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2o4EP4D.

 

  • 1991 – 2% of all live births were multiple births, a rate that gradually increases to 3.3% by 2014.

Statistics Canada, Live Births and Fetal Deaths (Stillbirths), by Type (Single or Multiple), Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 102-4515) (page last updated October 18, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/1f3GCWu.

 

  • 2000 – Number of births Canada reaches a post-war low of approximately 328,000, after having fallen steadily from a peak of 405,000 in 1990.

Statistics Canada, Live Births, by Month, Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 102-4502) (page last updated October 18, 2018). Link: http://bit.ly/2E5CRID.

 

  • 2014 – Fertility rates vary across Canada, ranging from a low of 1.41 children per woman in British Columbia to a high of 2.97 in Nunavut.

Statistics Canada, Crude Birth Rate, Age-Specific and Total Fertility Rates (Live Births), Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 102-4505) (page last updated October 18, 2018). Link: http://bit.ly/2DQ9N4i.

 

Labour force participation

  • 1976 – Labour force participation rate of women aged 25 to 54 is 52%.
  • 1980 – Labour force participation rate of women aged 25 to 54 is 60%.
  • 1990 – Labour force participation rate of women aged 25 to 54 is 76%.
  • 2000 – After reaching 79% in 2000, the increase in the labour force participation rate of women aged 25 to 54 slows down, hovering between 79% and 82% throughout the decade.
  • 2010–2017 – Labour force participation rate of women aged 25 to 54 is approximately 82% in 2010, and changes little between then and 2017 (83%).

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), by Sex and Detailed Age Group (CANSIM Table 282-0002) (page last updated January 5, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2p38FWs.

 

  • 1976 – Women account for 89% of all part-time workers, a share that gradually declines to 74% by 2017.

René Morissette, Feng Hou and Grant Schellenberg, “Full-Time Employment, 1976 to 2014,” Economic Insights, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-626-X (July 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/2nyh95V.

 

  • 1981 – 4 in 10 women aged 25 to 54 (41%) are employed full-time, up from 35% in 1976 and a rate that rises to 58% by 2014.

René Morissette, Feng Hou and Grant Schellenberg, “Full-Time Employment, 1976 to 2014,” Economic Insights, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-626-X (July 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/2nyh95V.

 

  • 1999 – 35% of self-employed workers are women, a steady increase from 26% in 1976. Rate then remains relatively stable, increasing slightly to 37% by 2017.

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), Employment by Class of Worker, North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and Sex (CANSIM Table 282-0012) (page last updated January 5, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2ps2TxK.

 

  • 2008 – 29% of women of women in dual-earner, opposite-sex married couples earn more than their husbands, more than double the share in 1976 (12%).

Cara Williams, “Economic Well-Being,” Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-503-X (December 2010). Link: http://bit.ly/1enJFZG.

 

  • 2014 – 70% of mothers with youngest child aged 0 to 2 are employed, up from 65% in 1998.

Sharanjit Uppal, “Employment Patterns of Families with Children,” Insights on Canadian Society, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X (June 24, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/1Nen7gR.

 

Education

  • 1970 – Women account for 22% of full-time graduate university students, a rate that increases over the next several decades to reach 55% by 2015.

Statistics Canada, “Full-Time University Enrolment, by Sex, Canada and by Province, Selected Years, 1920 to 1975,” Historical Statistics of Canada, Section W: Education, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-516-X (page last updated July 2, 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/2BJQwja.

Statistics Canada, Postsecondary Enrolments, by Registration Status, International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), Classification of Instructional Programs, Primary Grouping (CIP_PG), Sex and Student Status (CANSIM Table 477-0019). Link: http://bit.ly/2FzQOvp.

 

  • 1971 – Women account for 38% of full-time undergraduate students.

Statistics Canada, “Full-Time University Enrolment, by Sex, Canada and by Province, Selected Years, 1920 to 1975,” Historical Statistics of Canada, Section W: Education, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-516-X (page last updated July 2, 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/2BJQwja.

 

  • 1980 – Women account for nearly half (45%) of full-time undergraduate students.
  • 1980 – Women’s enrolment surpasses men in 1987, and then gradually increases over the next several decades, reaching 57% in 2015.

Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Trends in Higher Education Volume 1 – Enrolment (2011). Link: http://bit.ly/2myGeAi.

 

  • 1990 – 40% of women aged 25 to 54 have post-secondary qualifications.
  • 2000 – 54% of women aged 25 to 54 have post-secondary qualifications, a rate that continues to climb to 65% by 2009.

Martin Turcotte, “Women and Education,” Women in Canada: A Gender-based Statistical Report, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-503-X (December 2011). Link: http://bit.ly/2EtTwmU.

 

  • 1992 – 61% of post-secondary part-time students are women, a rate that remains stable over the next several decades (59% in 2015).

Statistics Canada, Postsecondary Enrolments, by Registration Status, International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED), Classification of Instructional Programs, Primary Grouping (CIP_PG), Sex and Student Status (CANSIM Table 477-0019). Link: http://bit.ly/2FzQOvp.

 

  • 2006 – 15% of lone mothers and 27% of mothers in couples (aged 25 to 64) have a bachelor’s degree or higher. Rates increase to 20% and 39%, respectively, by 2016.

Statistics Canada, “Education in Canada: Key Results from the 2016 Census,” The Daily (November 29, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2AJWiVY.

 

  • 2016 – 71% of women aged 25 to 54 have post-secondary qualifications.
  • 2016 – For the first time, women account for more than half (50.6%) of Canadians aged 25 to 34 with an earned doctorate.

Statistics Canada, “Education in Canada: Key Results from the 2016 Census,” The Daily (November 29, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2AJWiVY.

 

Stay-at-home moms

  • 1976 – Mothers account for nearly all (97%) stay-at-home parents.
  • 1980 – Mothers account for 98% of all stay-at-home parents, a rate that gradually declines throughout the 1980s to the present day.
  • 1990 – Mothers account for 94% of stay-at-home parents.
  • 2000 – Mothers account for 92% of stay-at-home parents.
  • 2010 – Mothers account for 89% of stay-at-home parents, a rate that remains steady up to 2015.

Sharanjit Uppal, “Employment Patterns of Families with Children,” Insights on Canadian Society, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X (June 24, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/1Nen7gR.

 

  • 1976 – Canada is home to 1.5 million stay-at-home mothers. Despite continued growth in the total population of Canada over the years, this number steadily declines over the next four decades.
  • 1986 – Canada is home to 827,000 stay-at-home mothers.
  • 1996 – Canada is home to 578,000 stay-at-home mothers.
  • 2006 – Canada is home to 468,000 stay-at-home mothers.
  • 2015 – Canada is home to 441,000 stay-at-home mothers.

Sharanjit Uppal, “Employment Patterns of Families with Children,” Insights on Canadian Society, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X (June 24, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/1Nen7gR.

 


FATHERHOOD

Family relationships

  • 1971 – 62% of men aged 15 and older are married (breakdown of common-law rates not available until 1991).
  • 1981 – 61% of men aged 15 and older are married.
  • 1991 – 54% of men aged 15 and older are married and 7% are living common-law.
  • 2001 – 49% of men aged 15 and older are married and 10% are living common-law.
  • 2011 – 46% of men are married, a share that increases slightly to 47% by 2017. 12% of men are living common-law, a share that declines slightly to 11% by 2017.

Statistics Canada, Estimates of Population, by Marital Status or Legal Marital Status, Age and Sex for July 1, Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 051-0042) (page last updated November 7, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2lSqvbR.

 

  • 1976 – Average age at first marriage for men is 25.1 years – gradually increases to 31 years by 2008.
  • 1981 – 45% of men in their 20s are a part of a couple, a share that steadily falls to 25% by 2011.
  • 2011 – 54% of men aged 30 to 34 report never having been married, more than triple the share in 1981 (15%).

Anne Milan, “Marital Status: Overview, 2011,” Report on the Demographic Situation in Canada, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 91-209-X (July 2013), Link: http://bit.ly/1kyjEQx.

 

  • 1993 – 56% of 11-year-old girls and 72% of boys said they found it easy to talk to their father about “things that really bother them,” a rate that increases to 66% and 75%, respectively, by 2013.

Health Behaviour In School-Aged Children (HBSC), “General Health, Physical Ailments and Medication Use,” The Health of Youth: A Cross-National Survey (1996). Link: http://bit.ly/2oPGYl4.

World Health Organization, “Growing Up Unequal: Gender and Socioeconomic Differences in Young People’s Health and Wellbeing,” Health Behaviour In School-Aged Children (HBSC) Study: International Report from the 2013/2014 Survey (2016). Link: http://bit.ly/2oYo6vt.

 

  • 2001 – Nearly 1 in 5 (18%) children aged 24 and under in lone-parent families live with their dad, up from 17% in 1981–1991 but lower than 22% to 23% during 1951–1971.

Statistics Canada, “Lone-Parent Families: The New Face of an Old Phenomenon,” Canadian Megatrends, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-630-X (March 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2E3tWr8.

 

Employment

  • 1976 – Men account for 70% of all full-time workers aged 25 to 54.
  • 1980 – Men account for 68% of all full-time workers aged 25 to 54.
  • 1990 – Men account for 61% of all full-time workers aged 25 to 54.
  • 2000 – Men account for 58% of all full-time workers aged 25 to 54, a rate that remains steady throughout the decade.
  • 2010 – Men account for 56% of all full-time workers aged 25 to 54, a rate that remains steady up to 2017.

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), by Sex and Detailed Age Group (CANSIM Table 282-0002) (page last updated January 5, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2p38FWs.

 

  • 1976  – 51% of families with at least one child under 16 were single-earner families with a working father, a share that drops to 17% by 2014.

Sharanjit Uppal, “Employment Patterns of Families with Children,” Insights on Canadian Society, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X (June 24, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/1Nen7gR.

 

  • 1987 – Men account for 15% of part-time workers aged 25 to 54, up from 11% in 1976 and a share that gradually increases to 26% by 2017.

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), by Sex and Detailed Age Group (CANSIM Table 282-0002) (page last updated January 5, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2p38FWs.

 

  • 1999 – 65% of self-employed workers in are men, down from 74% in 1974, a decline that has since stabilized (63% in 2017).

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), Employment by Class of Worker, North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and Sex (CANSIM Table 282-0012) (page last updated January 5, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2ps2TxK.

 

  • 2000 – 3% of all recent fathers across Canada report that they take or intend to take parental leave, a rate that increases to 30% by 2016.

Katherine Marshall, “Fathers’ Use of Paid Parental Leave,” Perspectives on Labour and Income, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-001-X (June 2008). Link: http://bit.ly/1UgSdfz.

Statistics Canada, “Employment Insurance Coverage Survey, 2015,” The Daily (November 16, 2016). Link: http://bit.ly/2oTsTPG.

 

  • 2017 – Labour force participation rate of men aged 25 to 54 is 91%, a gradual decline from 95% in 1976.

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), by Sex and Detailed Age Group (CANSIM Table 282-0002) (page last updated January 5, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2p38FWs.

 

Care and unpaid work

  • 1976 – Fathers account for less than 2% of stay-at-home parents, a share that gradually increases to 11% by 2015.

Statistics Canada, “Changing Profile of Stay-at-Home Parents,” Canadian Megatrends, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-630-X (September 28, 2016). Link: http://bit.ly/2FDTkAR.

Sharanjit Uppal, “Employment Patterns of Families with Children,” Insights on Canadian Society, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X (June 24, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/1Nen7gR.

 

  • 1976 – Men account for 21% of Canadians who identify as an unpaid family worker, a share that increases to 41% by 2017.

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), Employment by Class of Worker, North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) and Sex (CANSIM Table 282-0012) (page last updated January 5, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2ps2TxK.

 

  • 1986 – 51% of fathers report that they participate in household work
  • 1986 – 29% of fathers report that they prepare family meals
  • 1986 – 33% of surveyed fathers report that they provided help and care to their children that day, a rate that increases to 49% by 2015.

Patricia Houle, Martin Turcotte and Michael Wendt, “Changes in Parents’ Participation in Domestic Tasks and Care for Children from 1986 to 2015,” Spotlight on Canadians: Results from the General Social Survey, Statistics Canada catalogue no.89-652-X (June 1, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2rJ4AZL.

 

  • 1998 – Men who report engaging in unpaid work spend an average 190 minutes (3.2 hours) on these tasks, an amount that increases to 205 minutes (3.4 hours) by 2010.

Statistics Canada, General Social Survey – 2010: Overview of the Time Use of Canadians, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-647-X (July 2011). Link: http://bit.ly/2EyqRgk.

 

  • 2005 – Men report spending an average 345 minutes (5.8 hours) per day with family, a rate that increases to 379 minutes (6.3 hours) by 2010.

Statistics Canada, General Social Survey – 2010: Overview of the Time Use of Canadians, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-647-X (July 2011). Link: http://bit.ly/2EyqRgk.

 

  • 2007 – 43% of caregivers aged 45 and older are men, a rate that climbs to 47% by 2012.

Statistics Canada, ”Table 3-1: Population Providing Care for A Long-Term Health Condition or Physical Limitation, by Sex and Age — Canada,” 2007 General Social Survey: Care Tables, Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 89-633-X (page last updated July 17, 2009). Link: http://bit.ly/2ny8AHX.

 

  • 2015 – 76% of fathers report that they participate in household work
  • 2015 – 59% of fathers report that they prepare family meals, more than twice the rate in 1986.

Patricia Houle, Martin Turcotte and Michael Wendt, “Changes in Parents’ Participation in Domestic Tasks and Care for Children from 1986 to 2015,” Spotlight on Canadians: Results from the General Social Survey, Statistics Canada catalogue no.89-652-X (June 1, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2rJ4AZL.

 

Work–life

  • 1976 – Men aged 25 to 54 with children aged 5 and under work an average 43.6 hours per week.
  • 1996 – Men aged 25 to 54 with children aged 5 and under work an average 43.2 hours per week.
  • 2017 – Men aged 25 to 54 with children aged 5 and under work an average 41 hours per week.

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), by Usual Hours Worked, Main or All Jobs, Sex and Age Group (CANSIM Table 282-0016) (page last updated January 5, 2018). Link: http://bit.ly/2BNlPtn.

 

  • 1976 – Fathers account for less than 2% of stay-at-home parents, a share that gradually increases to 11% by 2015.

Sharanjit Uppal, “Employment Patterns of Families with Children,” Insights on Canadian Society, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X (June 24, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/1Nen7gR.

Statistics Canada, “Changing Profile of Stay-at-Home Parents,” Canadian Megatrends, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 11-630-X (September 28, 2016). Link: http://bit.ly/2FDTkAR.

 

  • 1987 – Fathers of children under the age of 5 reported missing an average 1.2 days of paid employment in 1987 due to personal or family responsibilities, a rate that increases to 2.3 by 2017.

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), Work Absence Statistics of Full-Time Employees by Sex and Presence of Children (CANSIM Table 279-0033) (page last updated January 5, 2018). Link: http://bit.ly/2FDSKDj.

 

  • 1992 – Regulated full- or part-time centre-based childcare spaces are available for 11.5% of children aged 0 to 5, a share that climbs to 24.1% by 2014.

Martha Friendly et al., Early Childhood Education and Care in Canada 2014, Childcare Resource and Research Unit (December 31, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/2uFtTO1.

 

  • 2000 – 3% of all recent fathers across Canada report that they take or intend to take parental leave, a rate that increases to 30% by 2016.

Katherine Marshall, “Fathers’ Use of Paid Parental Leave,” Perspectives on Labour and Income, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-001-X (June 2008). Link: http://bit.ly/1UgSdfz.

Statistics Canada, “Employment Insurance Coverage Survey, 2015,” The Daily (November 16, 2016). Link: http://bit.ly/2oTsTPG.

 

  • 2005 – Men report spending an average 345 minutes (5.8 hours) per day with family, a rate that increases to 379 minutes (6.3 hours) by 2010.

Statistics Canada, General Social Survey – 2010: Overview of the Time Use of Canadians, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-647-X (July 2011). Link: http://bit.ly/2EyqRgk.

 

  • 2014 – 79% of fathers with children under age 5 report being satisfied with their work–life balance.

Statistics Canada, “Satisfaction with Work–Life Balance: Fact Sheet,” Spotlight on Canadians: Results from the General Social Survey, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 89-652-X (April 14, 2016). Link: http://bit.ly/1S7H2nb.

 


DEMOGRAPHICS

Life expectancy

  • 1971 – Life expectancy at birth is 76.6 years for women and 69.6 years for men.
  • 1981 – Life expectancy at birth is 79.1 years for women and 72 years for men.
  • 1991 – Life expectancy at birth is 80.7 years for women and 74.4 years for men.
  • 2001 – Life expectancy at birth is 82 years for women and 76.9 years for men.
  • 2012 – Life expectancy at birth is 83.9 years for women and 79.8 years for men – projected to grow to 88.6 and 85.7 years, respectively, by 2075.

Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, “Mortality Projections for Social Security Programs in Canada,” Actuarial Studies (April 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/2gZfFh5.

 

  • 1971 – Life expectancy at age 65 is 17.6 years for women and 13.9 years for men. This means that women and men in Canada who reached age 65 could expect to live to age 82.6 and 78.9, respectively.
  • 1981 – Life expectancy at age 65 is 19 years for women and 14.7 years for men.
  • 1991 – Life expectancy at age 65 is 19.7 years for women and 15.6 years for men.
  • 2001 – Life expectancy at age 65 is 20.4 years for women and 17 years for men. Increase continues, reaching 22 years for women and 19.2 years for men by 2012.
  • 2010 – An estimated 9 in 10 Canadians can expect to reach age 65, up from 6 in 10 in 1925.

Office of the Superintendent of Financial Institutions, “Mortality Projections for Social Security Programs in Canada,” Actuarial Studies (April 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/2gZfFh5.

 

Seniors and elders

  • 1971 – 8% of Canada’s total population are seniors (aged 65 and older), accounting for 1.8M people.
  • 1981 – 9.6% of Canada’s total population are seniors (2.4M).
  • 1991 – 11.5% of Canada’s total population are seniors (3.2M), a share that continues to grow to 12.6% by 2001 (3.9M).
  • 2011 – 14.4% of Canada’s total population are seniors, a share that increases to 16.9% by 2017 (6.2M) and is projected to reach 23% by 2031.

Statistics Canada, Estimates of Population, by Age Group and Sex for July 1, Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 051-0001) (page last updated September 27, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2s2rlsN.

 

  • 1985 – 6.8% of grandparents are aged 80 and older, a share that nearly doubles to 13.5% by 2011.

Rachel Margolis, “The Changing Demography of Grandparenthood,” Journal of Marriage and Family 78:3 (2016). Link: http://bit.ly/20y0dZ8.

 

  • 1991 – 6.7% of seniors in Canada participate in the paid labour force – rate down from 9.2% in 1976, but increases steadily to reach 14.2% by 2017.

Statistics Canada, Labour Force Survey Estimates (LFS), by Sex and Detailed Age Group (CANSIM Table 282-0002) (page last updated January 5, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2p38FWs.

 

  • 2001  – Grandparents have an average 4.8 grandchildren – declines to 4.2 by 2011.

Anne Milan, Nadine Laflamme and Irene Wong, “Diversity of Grandparents Living with Their Grandchildren,” Insights on Canadian Society, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 75-006-X (April 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/2mPcug5.

 

  • 2001 – Canada is home to 3,795 centenarians (aged 100+), the first year for which this data is available.
  • 2011 – Canada is home to 5,825 centenarians, who become the fastest-growing age group between then and 2016 (+41%), reaching 8,230 that year.

Statistics Canada, “Census in Brief: A Portrait of the Population Aged 85 and Older in 2016 in Canada,” 2016 Census Analytical Products (May 3, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2qt2WdZ.

 

Children and youth

  • 1971 – 29% of Canada’s total population are children aged 0 to 14 (6.4M).
  • 1981 – 22% of Canada’s total population are children aged 0 to 14 (5.5M).
  • 1991 – 21% of Canada’s total population are children aged 0 to 14 (5.8M).
  • 2001 – 19% of Canada’s total population are children aged 0 to 14 (5.9M).
  • 2011 – 16% of Canada’s total population are children aged 0 to 14, a rate that remains steady up to 2017.

Statistics Canada, Estimates of Population, by Age Group and Sex for July 1, Canada, Provinces and Territories (CANSIM Table 051-0001) (page last updated September 27, 2017). Link: http://bit.ly/2s2rlsN.

 

  • 1971 – 39% of children under age 25 living in lone-parent families lived with a widowed parent, a share that drops significantly to 6% by 2011.

Nora Bohnert, Anne Milan and Heather Lathe, “Enduring Diversity: Living Arrangements of Children in Canada over 100 Years of the Census,” Demographic Documents, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 91F0015M (April 2014). Link: http://bit.ly/2DVBInz.

 

  • 1981 – 27% of young adults in their 20s live in the parental home, a share that rises to 42% by 2011.

Statistics Canada, “Living Arrangements of Young Adults Aged 20 to 29,” 2011 Analytical Products, Statistics Canada catalogue no. 98-311-X-2011003 (December 22, 2015). Link: http://bit.ly/18Frq5X.

  • 1992 – Regulated full- or part-time centre-based child care spaces are available for 12% of childre