Sharing a Roof: Multi-generational Homes in Canada (2016 Census Update)

Nathan Battams

Updated October 2, 2017

Home is at the heart of family life, where family relationships are formed and nurtured throughout the life cycle. It’s also where family resources – which include finances, food, living space and personal energy – are managed and where families provide care and support. Family resource management is an important factor in multi-generational households (those housing three or more generations), of which there were nearly 404,000 across Canada in 2016. These represented the fastest-growing household type between 2001 and 2016 (+37.5%), and they are home to 2.2 million people, or 6.3% of Canada’s population (up from 4% in 2001).

The manner in which these families share resources and their living space is shaped by the economic, demographic and social contexts in which they live. Exploring how the family home adapts and evolves can teach us about family relationships and family resiliency.

More seniors are living with their grandchildren

Intergenerational relationships are on the rise in Canada, with population aging and increased life expectancy giving different generations more time to build and strengthen bonds. According to Statistics Canada, 16.9% of the total population is now aged 65 years or older, outnumbering the under-15 age group for the first time in Canada’s history. Life expectancy at age 65 is currently at a record high of 21.9 years (87 years old) for women and 19.0 years (84 years old) for men.

Advances in home care, public transportation, assistive technologies and increased mobility have made it possible for more seniors and elders to decide where and how to live – and a growing number are now sharing a roof with their children and grandchildren.

Research shows that growing numbers of children aged 14 and under are living with grandparents. In 2011, 4.8% of children lived with at least one grandparent, up from 3.3% in 2001. While parents are typically also living in these homes, recent data from the 2016 Census shows that more than 32,000 children live with grandparents with no middle (parent) generation present in “skip-generation” households (up 8.3% since 2011).

Multi-generational living more common among Indigenous and immigrant families

Indigenous and immigrant families – both of which account for a growing share of Canada’s population – are more likely than others to live with grandma and grandpa, which is contributing to the increase in multi-generational households. Among Indigenous families, 11% of grandparents reporting an Aboriginal identity lived with their grandchildren in 2011 (14% of First Nations, 22% of Inuit and 5% of Métis grandparents).

Grandparents Living with Grandchildren Chart

Immigrant families are also more likely to live in multi-generational households than their Canadian-born counterparts, a living arrangement that is often used as a financial management strategy for recent immigrants while they’re settling in to their new country. Analyses from Statistics Canada suggest that immigrants who arrived as children as well as second‑generation Canadians are more likely to live with a parent than those who were Canadians of the third or more generations. Whereas immigrants accounted for 26% of the overall population in Canada aged 45 and over in 2011, they accounted for more than one-half (54%) of all co-residing grandparents in 2011.

A greater number of young adults are living in the parental home

While only 2.9% of private households in Canada are (three-generation) multi-generational households, it’s important to note that this statistic doesn’t tell the full story. Not included in Statistics Canada’s definition of multi-generational households are those that consist solely of parents and their adult children, a two-generation living arrangement that has been steadily increasing for decades as youth have faced tough labour markets, increased student debt and rising life costs.

The proportion of young adults living in the parental home increased from 27% in 1981 to 42% for those aged 20–29. More recent data from the 2016 Census shows that many Canadians in their early thirties are also living with parents: during the 15-year period since 2001, the share of young adults aged 20–34 who were living with at least one parent increased from 31% to 35%, while those aged 30–34 grew from 11% to 14%. This societal shift has reduced some of the stigma associated with young adults living in their parental home, which can in turn contribute to this trend.

With a greater number of seniors living longer, growth in the number of Indigenous and immigrant families (who are more likely to live in multi-generational homes) and a greater number of young adults living in the parental home, multi-generational living will likely continue to grow in Canada. The high cost of housing also plays a role, with the average price of a home now more than $478,696 across the country, and reaching a high of $1,029,786 in Greater Vancouver.

Seniors provide and receive care in multi-generational homes

Some families live in multi-generational households because it allows the younger generations to provide care for their senior relatives, who benefit from the company of loved ones in a familial setting. Regular company with family members can prevent social isolation among seniors, which research has shown can have wide-ranging detrimental effects on their health and well-being. This can be particularly important for widowed grandparents, who account for one-quarter of co-residing grandparents.

Sometimes the senior generation in multi-generational homes is the source of care and support, with many making significant contributions to family finances. More than half (50.3%) report at least some responsibility for household payments, with a much higher share contributing when there’s a lone-parent middle generation (75%), or if they live in skip-generation households (80%).

Many of the 600,000 grandparents who live with their grandchildren provide care for their grandchildren when the parents are at work, at school or running errands. This can have a significant impact on family finances, since child care costs can consume a significant portion of family income. This is particularly true for parents of infants, since infant child care spaces are not only the hardest to find, but also the most expensive, often exceeding $1,000 per month (with the exception of Quebec, which has much lower average costs due to its $7.75-per-day child care policy). According to a 2015 report from the Canadian Centre for Policy Alternatives, full-time infant care in Canadian cities were highest in Toronto, where median unsubsidized rates were more than $1,700 per month.

The middle generation in multi-generational households can face numerous overlapping stressors from caring for both parents and children, which has led to them being labelled the “sandwich generation” in the media. Cohabitation can help avoid or reduce some of the stress and costs that might otherwise result from providing care to a parent who lives out of town or in another province – so it is perhaps not surprising that nearly one-quarter (24%) of Canadians who provided care to their parents in 2012 lived with the care recipient(s).

Co-residing parents and young adults make diverse contributions to family finances

Young adults in multi-generational homes give and receive support in diverse ways. A growing number provide care to family members with long-term health conditions, disabilities or age-related conditions. In 2012, 27% of the 15–29 age group provided care to family, with grandparents being the most common care recipient. But they help out in many other ways as well, such as with housework, errands and child care. In turn, living in the family home provides young adults with diverse forms of support as well, which can include room and board, meals and the use of facilities (e.g. laundry).

Living in multi-generational households can have economic advantages for all residents, as income can be pooled and household costs can be split among people in the household. The resulting savings can help to protect families from poverty and food insecurity. In a 2011 study of multi-generational living in the United States following the Great Recession, researchers found that the poverty rate in multi-generational homes was lower than that of their single-generational counterparts (11.5% and 14.6%, respectively). For those without jobs, the difference was far more pronounced: poverty rates for unemployed Americans was 17.5% for those living in multi-generational households, compared with 30.3% for those living in other households.

Creativity and adaptability facilitate shared living

No matter its size, every home has limited space, and families are deploying creative solutions to share a home while respecting and maintaining the independence of all involved. Some have set up accessory dwelling units (ADUs) in their homes for their parents that have been designed for senior living, sometimes referred to as “granny flats” or “in-law suites.” The renovations involved in establishing these living spaces are often relatively minor and can allow seniors to live in homes with little need for assistance and reduced risk of injury.

Architects and homebuilders associations are taking note of the increase in multi-generational living. Floor plans and building designs targeted at multi-generational living have become a selling point for this growing market. Often, these designs incorporate a “home within a home” – that is, a full home with a separate, private apartment connected or embedded. Extra living spaces can have their own separate entrance or they can share one with the primary living space. Multi-generational homes sometimes feature open floor plans and wider doorways and hallways, which can allow for better traffic flow. Generally speaking, the more generations living under one roof, the more versatile the house has to be.

Multi-generational living reflects family adaptability

Multi-generational living can involve some tensions and challenges, but it can also benefit families, allowing for stronger intergenerational relations, diverse options for the management of family finances and household work. While it creates opportunities for care and support, multi-generational living is a complex, dynamic living arrangement that benefits from communication, respect and boundaries.

Multi-generational households aren’t a recent innovation. They were more common prior to the Second World War than they are today, so the recent increase in this living arrangement is not uncharted territory for families by any means. Like all shifts and trends in living arrangements over time, it demonstrates how families adapt and react to their ever-changing circumstances, and respond to the social and economic climate.

 


Download this article in PDF format.

All references and source information can be found in the PDF version of this article.

Originally published on November 19, 2015
Updated on October 2, 2017




A Snapshot of Families and Food in Canada

Food is at the heart of family life. A biological necessity for our survival and well-being, food is also much more than that. What we choose to eat is often more than just a matter of personal preferences and whims; in many instances, what we eat reflects our cultural, community and family identities. Sometimes, our choices are made for us based on the availability and accessibility of food.

Regardless of the context, families adapt and react to ensure that dietary needs are being met. Some families have many opportunities to eat together, and these family meals provide a setting where family dynamics and relationships often “play out,” whether it’s in the delegation of cooking roles, discussing an upcoming family vacation or arguing over who has to do the dishes. Sometimes families – particularly those with busy schedules or high mobility – opt to eat meals “on the go.”

A Snapshot of Families and Food in Canada explores the evolving relationships between families and food in Canada, including research and statistics about family meals, eating patterns, nutrition, food security and more.

Highlights include:

  • More than 6 in 10 Canadians (62%) surveyed in 2017 said they eat dinner as a family at least five times per week.
  • More than one-quarter (26%) of Canadians surveyed in 2017 agree with the statement, “My work–life balance does not permit me to prepare and/or eat my meals at home.”
  • The most recent data indicates that 12% of households across Canada (1.3 million) experienced food insecurity in 2014, home to 3.2 million people.
  • More than half (52%) of Inuit living in Inuit Nunangat((From Statistics Canada: “Inuit Nunangat is the homeland of Inuit of Canada. It includes the communities located in the four Inuit regions: Nunatsiavut (Northern coastal Labrador), Nunavik (Northern Quebec), the territory of Nunavut and the Inuvialuit region of the Northwest Territories. These regions collectively encompass the area traditionally occupied by Inuit in Canada.” Link: http://bit.ly/2gbzaqo.)) aged 25 and over lived in food-insecure households in 2012.
  • In 2015, households across Canada spent an average $8,600 on food, an increase of 9.9% since 2010.
  • 4 in 10 of those who said it’s become more difficult to afford groceries said they’ve been choosing less healthy options in the aisle to manage the rising prices.
  • According to a 2017 study, more than three-quarters of Canadians aren’t meeting Canada Food Guide recommendations for fruit and vegetable consumption, with a resulting estimated economic burden to society of is $4.39 billion per year.
  • More than 863,000 people across Canada accessed food banks in March 2016 alone (40% of whom lived in family households with children), 28% higher than in 2008.
  • Research shows that the widespread malnutrition experienced by Indigenous children in Canada’s residential school system has had (and continues to have) a multi-generational impact on the health and well-being of their children and grandchildren, contributing to higher rates of chronic conditions.

This bilingual resource will be updated periodically as new data emerges. Sign up for our monthly e-newsletter to find out about updates, as well as other news about publications, projects and initiatives from the Vanier Institute.

Download A Snapshot of Families and Food in Canada from the Vanier Institute of the Family.

 

Learn more about families and food in Canada:

 


This Statistical Snapshot publication is dedicated to David Northcott, CM, OM, retired Executive Director of Winnipeg Harvest Food Bank and a founder of both the Canadian Association of Food Banks and the Manitoba Association of Food Banks. David recently completed his second full term on the Vanier Institute Board of Directors, where his enthusiasm, dedication to family well-being and generous heart has had an impact on the entire Vanier Institute team.

Published on September 20, 2017

 




Grandparent Health and Family Well-Being

Rachel Margolis, Ph.D.

Canada’s 7.1 million grandparents and great-grandparents make unique, diverse and valuable contributions to families and society, serving as role models, nurturers, historians, sources of experiential knowledge and more. As with the general population, the grandparent population in Canada is aging rapidly, sparking some concern in the media and public discourse about the potential impact of this “grey tsunami.”

However, despite being older, data show that the health of grandparents has improved over the past 30 years. This trend can positively impact families, since healthy grandparents can have a higher capacity to contribute to family life and help younger generations manage family responsibilities such as child care and household finances.

Improving grandparent health enhances their capacity to contribute to family life and help younger generations manage family responsibilities.

Canada is aging, and so are its grandparents

The aging of the grandparent population mirrors broader population aging trends across the country. According to the most recent Census in 2016, 16.9% of Canada’s population are seniors, nearly double the share in 1981 (9.6%) and the highest proportion to date. This growth is expected to continue over the next several decades: projections show that nearly one-quarter (23%) of Canadians will be 65 or older by 2031. Furthermore, the oldest Canadians (aged 100 and over) are currently the fastest-growing age group: there were 8,200 centenarians in 2016 (up 41% since 2011), and projections from Statistics Canada show that this group is likely to reach nearly 40,000 by 2051.

In this context, it’s perhaps no surprise that the overall grandparent population is also aging. The share of grandparents who are seniors grew from 41% in 1985 to 53% in 2011, and the share of grandparents who are aged 80 and older has grown even faster, nearly doubling from 6.8% in 1985 to 13.5% in 2011.

Life expectancy increases fuel grandparent population aging

One of the underlying factors fuelling the aging of the grandparent population is the fact that Canadians are living longer. According to Statistics Canada, life expectancy at birth has continued to rise steadily, reaching 83.8 years for women and 79.6 years for men in 2011–2013. This represents an increase of about a decade over the past half-century, with women and men gaining 9.5 years and 11.2 years, respectively, since the years 1960–1962.

In addition, more people are reaching seniorhood than in the past because of mortality declines at ages below age 65. Data from Statistics Canada shows that the average share of female newborns who can expect to reach age 65 rose from 86% for those born in 1980–1982 to 92% for those born in 2011–2013, while this share increased from 75% to 87% for males during the same period.

People are also living longer as seniors, as reflected in ongoing increases in life expectancy at age 65 – a useful measure of the well-being of older populations since it excludes mortality for those who do not reach seniorhood. According to estimates from Statistics Canada, life expectancy at age 65 in 2011–2013 was 21.9 years for women and 19 years for men – up by 3 years and 4.4 years, respectively, from 1980 to 1982.

Delayed fertility contributes to the aging of the grandparent population since it increases the age of transitioning into grandparenthood.

Another contributing factor to the aging of grandparents is the fact that on average, women are having children at older ages than in the past – a fertility trend that increases the age of transitioning into grandparenthood. The average age of first-time mothers has risen steadily since 1970, from 23.7 to 28.8 years in 2013. The number of first-time mothers aged 40 and older has also grown, rising from 1,172 in 1993 to 3,648 in 2013 (+210%). As more women postpone childbearing until later in life, their transition to grandparenthood will also likely occur later. Today’s new grandparents are baby boomers, a generation in which many women delayed fertility for education and work experience. Their children are also having children later, and the fertility postponement of two generations together is influencing the pattern of later entry into grandparenthood.

Despite the aging of grandparents, grandparenthood accounts for a growing portion of many people’s lives. Even though people are becoming grandparents later, they are living longer as grandparents. The longer period of time spent in the grandparent role can extend opportunities for forming, nurturing and strengthening relationships with younger generations. According to my recent research, the average number of years that someone can expect to spent as a grandparent given today’s demography in Canada is 24.3 years for women and 18.9 years for men – that’s approximately two decades in which they can continue to play a major role in family life.

Despite being older, grandparents are healthier

In addition to living longer, data from the General Social Survey (GSS) suggest that grandparents in Canada today are far more likely to report living in good health than in the past. The proportion who rate their health as “good/very good/excellent” has increased from 70% in 1985 to 77% in 2011, while the share reporting “fair/poor” health has fallen from 31% to 23%. Overall, the odds of grandparents reporting that they are in good health are 44% higher in 2011 than in 1985.

A number of trends have contributed to health improvements among grandparents and older Canadians in general over the past half-century. There have been significant advances in public health that have facilitated disease prevention, detection and treatment. Among other factors, this has led to major reductions in deaths from circulatory system diseases (e.g. heart disease), which has been one of the biggest contributors to gains in life expectancy among men over the past half-century.

Another factor contributing to improvements in the health of grandparents in Canada is the rising educational attainment of this population. Research shows that education can improve health both in direct and indirect ways throughout life. Direct impacts can include enhancing one’s health literacy, knowledge, interactions with the health care system and patients’ ability and willingness to advocate for themselves when engaging with health care providers. Indirect impacts can include an increase in one’s resources (e.g. income) or occupational opportunities (e.g. being less likely to have a physically demanding and/or risky job, and more likely to have a job with health benefits).

Education has been associated with greater health, which is significant because the share of grandparents who have completed post-secondary education has more than tripled over the past three decades.

These are important factors to consider in the Canadian context, since the share of grandparents who have completed post-secondary education has more than tripled over the past three decades, from 13% in 1985 to nearly 40% by 2011.

Healthy grandparents can facilitate family well-being

Grandparent health can have a significant impact on families. When a grandparent (or multiple grandparents) is living in poor health, families are often the first to provide, manage or pay for care that supports their well-being. This is particularly true for senior grandparents receiving care at home; the Health Council of Canada estimates that families provide between 70% and 75% of all home care received by seniors in Canada.

Data from the 2012 GSS show that nearly 3 in 10 Canadians (28%) reported providing caregiving to a family member in the past year, and aging-related needs were the most commonly cited reason for care (reported by 28% of caregivers). Grandparents accounted for 13% of all Canadians who received care, and they were also the most frequent recipients of young caregivers’ (aged 15 to 29) assistance, 4 in 10 of whom cited a grandparent as the primary recipient.

While 95% of caregivers say they’re effectively coping with their caregiving responsibilities, research has found that in some contexts, it can have a negative impact on their well-being, career development and family finances. This can be particularly true for the three-quarters of caregivers who are also in the paid labour force, accounting for more than one-third of all working Canadians.

On the other hand, when grandparents are living in good health, families can benefit in a variety of ways. In addition to the fact that it means they are less likely to require caregiving assistance, they are also more likely to be able to make positive contributions to family life, such as providing child care and contributing to family finances.

Grandparents provide child care to younger generations

Many grandparents play an important role in caring for their grandchildren, which can help parents in the “middle generation” manage their child care and paid work responsibilities. A number of economic, social and environmental trends have converged in recent decades that have increased the significant contributions they make to families with regard to child care.

Many grandparents play an important role in caring for their grandchildren, which can help parents in the “middle generation” manage their child care and paid work responsibilities.

Over the past four decades, the share of dual-earner couples in Canada has increased; in 1976, 36% of couples with children included two earners, a rate that nearly doubled to 69% by 2014. In more than half of these couples (51%), both parents worked full-time, which means they were more likely to rely on non-parental care for their children. This is supported by data from the 2011 GSS: while nearly half (46%) of all parents reported relying on some type of child care for their children aged 14 years and younger in the past year, the rate was higher (71%) for dual-earner parents with children aged 0 to 4 and children aged 5 to 14 (49%).

The evolution in family structure and composition across generations has also contributed to more families relying on non-parental care for their children. The share of lone-parent families has increased significantly over the past 50 years, rising from 8.4% of all families in 1961 to approximately 16% in 2016. Data from the 2011 GSS show that nearly 6 in 10 lone parents of children aged 4 and under (58%) report that they rely on non-parental care.

Sometimes grandparents are solely responsible for raising their grandchildren when no middle (i.e. parent) generation is present. The 2011 GSS counted 51,000 of these “skip-generation families” in Canada, which was home to 12% of all grandparents who live with their grandchildren. Some of those who live with their children are more likely than others to live in skip-generation homes, such as people reporting a First Nations (28%), Métis (28%) or Inuit (18%) identity (compared with 11% among the non-Indigenous population).

Lastly, many parents may rely on grandparents for help with child care if they can’t find quality, regulated child care spaces in their communities. In 2014, the availability in regulated, centre-based child care spaces was only sufficient for one-quarter (24%) of children aged 5 and under across Canada. While this is a significant increase from 12% in 1992, it still leaves more than 3 in 4 children in this age group without an available regulated child care space. The availability of child care (or a lack thereof) is significant, since it can affect whether or not parents in coupled families can both participate in the paid labour market.

The cost of child care can also lead parents to turn to grandparents for child care assistance. This is particularly true for families living in urban centres. One 2015 study on the cost of child care in Canadian cities, which used administrative fee data and randomized phone surveys conducted with child care centres and homes, found that the highest rates in Canada were in Toronto, where estimates showed median unsubsidized rates of $1,736 per month for full-day infant care (under 18 months of age) and $1,325 for toddlers (aged 1½ to 3).

Grandparent involvement can enhance child well-being

Regardless of the reason grandparents spend time with their grandchildren, their involvement in family life can benefit the well-being of children. Studies have shown that grandparent involvement in family life is significantly associated with child well-being – in particular, it has been associated with greater prosocial behaviours and school involvement. The benefits aren’t limited to children, either, as other research has shown that close relationships between grandparents and grandchildren can have a positive impact on mental health for both. Among First Nations families, grandparents have also been found to play an important role in supporting cultural health and healing among younger generations.

Research shows that grandparent involvement in family life is significantly associated with child well-being, including greater prosocial behaviours and school involvement.

The broader context of improving grandparent health is good news for many families, since their better health can make it easier to participate in activities with children and grandchildren, and research shows that these interactions with younger kin can be more rewarding in this context.

Many grandparents play an important role in family finances

Improvements in grandparent health can also enhance their capacity to engage in paid work, which can improve their own finances and facilitate contributions to younger generations.

Improvements in grandparent health also enhance their capacity to engage in paid work, which can improve their own finances and facilitate contributions to younger generations.

While there isn’t much recent data on the employment patterns of grandparents in Canada per se, rising rates of working seniors have been well documented over the past several decades. Between 1997 and 2003, the paid labour force participation rate for seniors ranged between 6% and 7%, but this has steadily increased to around 14% in the first half of 2017 (and an even higher rate of 27% for those aged 65 to 69). Since approximately 8 in 10 seniors in Canada are grandparents, it’s clear that a growing number of grandparents are working today.

The potential for grandparents to contribute to family finances through paid work can be particularly important for the 8% who live in multi-generational households. According to data from the 2016 Census, this is the fastest-growing household type, having grown in number by nearly 38% between 2011 and 2016 to reach 403,810 homes. Similar to patterns found among skip-generation families, this living arrangement is more common among Indigenous and immigrant families, which both represent a growing share of families in Canada.

Skip-generation living arrangements are more common among Indigenous and immigrant families, which both represent a growing share of families in Canada.

Data from the 2011 GSS showed that among the 584,000 grandparents living in these types of homes, more than half (50.3%) reported that they have financial responsibilities in the household. Some were more likely than others to contribute to family finances: rates were significantly higher for those living in skip-generation households (80%) and multi-generational households with a lone-parent middle generation (75%).

Opportunities are growing for grandparent–family relationships

While the aging of the general and grandparent population in Canada presents certain societal challenges, notably with regard to community care, housing, transportation and income security, their rising life expectancy and improving health present growing opportunities for individuals and families. Many grandparents already help younger generations with fulfilling family responsibilities, such as child care and managing family finances, and this will continue in the years ahead – a positive side of the story that is often lost in narratives about the “grey tsunami.”

As the health of grandparents has improved over the years, many have been able to enjoy a greater quantity and quality of relationships with younger family members. As families adapt and react to their evolving social, economic and cultural contexts, they will continue to play an important – and likely growing – role in family life for generations to come.

 


Rachel Margolis, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor in the Department of Sociology at the University of Western Ontario.

Download this article in PDF format.

All references and source information can be found in the PDF version of this article.

Published on September 5, 2017




Infographic: Modern Couples in Canada

Just as families have evolved across generations, so too have the couple relationships that are a major part of Canada’s “family landscape.” This perpetual change is both a reflection of and a driving force behind some of the evolving social, economic, cultural and environmental forces that shape family life.

Dating, marriage, cohabitation, common-law relationships – the ways people choose to come together, or decide to move apart, are as diverse as the couples themselves. There are, however, some broad trends being witnessed across the country, with family structures diversifying, people forming couple relationships at later ages and family finances taking on a more egalitarian structure.

Using new data from the 2016 Census, the Vanier Institute of the Family has published an infographic on modern couples in Canada.

Highlights include:

  • In 2016, married couples accounted for 79% of all couples in Canada, down from 93% in 1981.
  • One-quarter of “never-married” Canadians say they don’t intend to get married.
  • In 2016, 21% of all couples in Canada were living common-law, up from 6% in 1981.
  • The share of twentysomething women (37%) and men (25%) living in couples has nearly halved since 1981 (falling from 59% and 45%, respectively).
  • In 2016, 12.4% of all couple families in Canada with children under 25 were stepfamilies, down slightly from 12.6% in 2011.
  • There are 73,000 same-sex couples in Canada, 12% of whom are raising children.
  • 1 in 5 surveyed Canadians reported in 2011 that their parents are separated or divorced, up from 10% in 2001.
  • The share of people living in mixed unions nearly doubled between 1991 and 2011, from 2.6% to 4.6%.((Statistics Canada defines a mixed union as “a couple in which one spouse or partner belongs to a visible minority group and the other does not, as well as a couple in which the two spouses or partners belong to different visible minority groups.”))
  • 69% of couples with children were dual-earner couples in 2014, up from 36% in 1976.

 
Download the Modern Couples in Canada infographic from the Vanier Institute of the Family.
 
 
Learn more about modern relationships in Canada:

  • Modern Families, Modern Living Arrangements – Part 1, Part 2 (Transition articles)

 


Published on August 4, 2017

 




Facts and Stats: Families and Active Leisure in Canada (2017 Update)

Whether it’s swimming at the beach in the summer, tobogganing in the winter or playing organized sports throughout the year, many families enjoy being physically active in their leisure time, and this exercise can have a positive impact on our individual and family well-being. However, there is growing concern that many people aren’t meeting the recommended guidelines for physical activity, as busy schedules and “screen time” can interfere with our best efforts to keep moving.

Learn about how Canadians of all ages are keeping fit and having fun with our updated fact sheet on families and active leisure in Canada!

Download Facts and Stats: Families and Active Leisure in Canada from the Vanier Institute of the Family.

 


Published on July 25, 2017